Turin Museum
shabtis
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The Third Intermediate Period
Shabti of Amenemheb
Name: Amenemheb
'Imn-m-Hb
Title: Servant in the Place of Truth
sDm aS m st-mAat  
Material: wood
Mummiform holding agricultural implements (hoes); mediocre modelling;
polychrome decoration painted on white gesso: wig painted black, face
and hands dark ochre; hoes painted red; large usekh collar painted
red, yellow, and black.
Hieroglyphs painted black.
Text: Incised hieroglyphs, 8 rows around body. Chapter VI of the
Book of the Dead.
Provenance: Deir el-Medina
Date: 19th dynasty

www.ccer.nl/ccer/apps/prosopographia/prosopo.asp?trans=Imn-m-Hb
Shabti of Horemwia
Name: Horemwia
HHr-m-wia
Title: Servant in the Place of Truth
sDm aS m st-mAat
Material: wood
Mummiform, hands crossed; good modelling; polychrome decoration
painted on white gesso: wig painted black, face painted red ochre; large yellow usekh
collar yellow with decorations in red and black; front panel painted yellow,
boundaries lines red, hieroglyphs painted black.
Text: One column of hieroglyphs on front.
Wsir sDm aS m st-mAat Hr-m-wia mAa-xrw
The Osiris, the Servant it the Place of Truth, Horemwia, justified
Provenance: Deir el-Medina
Date: Late 18th dynasty

www.ccer.nl/ccer/apps/prosopographia/prosopo.asp?trans=Hr-m-wja
Shabti of Urele
Name: Urele
wrnwrnr
Title: Housewife
nb.t-pr
Material: wood
Mummiform, hands crossed over chest holding painted hoes; excellent modelling;
striated wig painted black; nicely carved facial details, ears pierced; incised lines
to delimitate different sections in usekh collar, painted red, yellow and
dark blue (?); Body shape resembles Amarna shabtis.
Text: Painted hieroglyphs, 6 rows around body. Chapter VI of the Book of the
Dead.
Provenance: Deir el-Medina (?)
Date: 18th dynasty.

www.ccer.nl/ccer/apps/prosopographia/prosopo.asp?trans=wrnr
Shabti of Baky
Name: Baky
bAk.j
Title: Servant in the Place of Truth
sDm aS m st-mAat
Material: wood
Mummiform, hands crossed over chest holding painted hoes; good
modelling; lappet wig; front text panel delimited by black lines.
Text: One column of hieroglyphs on front: [Title, Name, and
shabti Call]
sHD Wsir sDm aS m st-mAat bAk.j mAa-xrw Dd.f i SAwAbty
May the Osiris be illuminated, the Servant it the Place of Truth,
Baky, justified. He says “Oh, shawabti”
Provenance: Deir el-Medina [TT298]
Date: 19th dynasty.
Dossiers d’Archeologie, p. 26 (Inv. cat. 2606)

www.ccer.nl/ccer/apps/prosopographia/prosopo.asp?trans=bAk.j
Shabti of Nebenmaat
Name: Nebemmaat
nnb-n-mAat
Title: Servant in the Place of Truth
sDm aS m st-mAat
Material: wood
Mummiform, hands crossed holding hoes; good modelling; polychrome
decoration painted on white gesso: wig painted black, face painted
red ochre; large usekh collar painted yellow with decorations black;
front panel painted yellow, boundaries lines red, hieroglyphs painted
black.
Text: One column of hieroglyphs on front. [Title, Name, and shabti
Call]
sHD Wsir sDm aS m st-mAat nb-m-mAat mAa-xrw
May the Osiris be illuminated, the Servant it the Place of Truth,
Nebemmaet, justified
Provenance: Deir el-Medina [TT219]
Date: 19th dynasty.
Dossiers d’Archeologie, p. 28 (Inv. cat. 2663-2665 –three
statuettes)
(son of Amennakht TT218)

www.ccer.nl/ccer/apps/prosopographia/prosopo.asp?trans=nb-n-mAa.t
Shabti of Qenen
Name: Qenen
qnqnn
Title: Servant in the Place of Truth
sdm aS m st-mAat
Material: wood
Mummiform, hands hidden; good modelling; polychrome
decoration painted on white gesso: Wig painted black, face
painted red ochre; large usekh collar painted yellow with red
semicircular lines; broad line delimiting usekh collar
painted dark green. Front panel painted yellow, boundaries
lines red, hieroglyphs painted black.
Text: One column of hieroglyphs on front:
shD Wsir sdm `s m st-mAat qnn mAa-hrw
May the Osiris be illuminated, the Servant it the Place of
Truth, Qenen, justified
Provenance: Deir el-Medina [TT 4 (?)]
Date: 19th dynasty

www.ccer.nl/ccer/apps/prosopographia/prosopo.asp?trans=qnn
Shabti of Nespayherhat
Name: Nespayherhat
NNs-pA.jj-Hr-HAt
Title: God’s Father of Amun
it-nTr n Imn
Material: pottery
Servants: Mummiform, hands crossed over the chest holding
hoes; good modelling; green-washed pottery with details in
black.
Overseer shabtis in the dress of the living with short kilt.
Left arm crossed over the chest and holding a whip, right arm
lowered down.
Text: One column of hieroglyphs on front.
Wsir it-nTr n Imn Ns-pA.jj-Hr-HAt mAa-xrw
The Osiris, the God’s Father ofAmun,  Nespayherhat, justified
Provenance: Deir el-Medina tombs 1269 and 1270
Date: TIP, 21st/22nd dynasty
Dossiers d’Archeologie, p. 30
(Inv. Supl. 10129-10482)
Sources:
1. Ranke, Hermann : Die Ägyptischen Personennamen. Bd. I-III. Glückstadt, 1935, 1949, 1977
2. Borla, Mathilde : Les Statuettes Funéraires du Musée Égyptien de Turin In: Dossiers
d'Archeologie 2003
3. Valbelle, Dominique : Ouchebtis de Deir el-Médineh
Le Caire : I. F. A. O , 1972.
4.
www.littera.waseda.ac.jp/wever/egypt/
5. www.ccer.nl/ccer/apps/prosopographia/prosopo.asp?
Shabti of Amennakht
Name: Amen-nakht
ImImn-nxt
Title: Royal scribe of the Lord of the Two Lands at the Place of Truth
sS nsw n nb tA.wi m st-mAat
Material: wood
Mummiform, hands hidden; good modelling; polychrome decoration painted
on white gesso: Wig painted black, face painted red ochre; large usekh collar
painted yellow with red semicircular lines; broad line delimiting usekh collar
painted dark green. Front panel painted yellow, boundaries lines red, hieroglyphs
painted black.
Text: One column of hieroglyphs on front:
sHD Wsir sS nsw n nb tA.wi m st-mAat Imn-nxt mAa-xrw
May the Osiris be illuminated, the royal scribe of the Lord of the Two Lands at
the Place of Truth, Amen-nakht, justified
Provenance: Deir el-Medina
similar to a fragment in Valbelle, p.27, pl. II, pl. XI, from pit 329.
Date: 19th dynasty
Dossiers d’Archeologie, p. 28 (Inv. cat. 2588, 2606, 2529 –three statuettes)

www.ccer.nl/ccer/apps/prosopographia/prosopo.asp?trans=Imn-nxt
Text © Miguel Angel (Spain)
Photographs by Dik van Bommel (The Netherlands)
All photographs of the objects from the museum's collections are © of Museo Egizio di Torino.
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Other shabtis of Amen-nakht
Other shabtis of Nebenmaat
Other shabti of Qenen:
“Here I am,” you shall say.
                                 Shabti call (Chapter VI of the ‘Book of the Dead’)

Ancient Egyptians were supposed to carry out menial labour in the Netherworld. Initially, servant statues had been introduced in the
tombs to work for their masters, but from the First Intermediate Period onwards, even the privileged people were summoned to work
in the Hereafter. To cope with this new situation, shabti figures began to occur in Middle Kingdom tombs with a twofold nature: on
the one hand, they were meant to be images of their owners, representatives of the deceased in the realm of the Lord of Eternity.
On the other hand, they were also considered to be servants of the deceased, taking the role of the servant statues. The complex
nature of the shabti figure as a substitute of both the owner and his or her servants remains unaltered during the New Kingdom and
the Third Intermediate Period, but the function of these funerary statuettes becomes gradually limited to the role of servants. At
the beginning of the New Kingdom, the number of shabtis per person is still much reduced, but this tendency will change during the
period, and shabti figures will be mass-produced. Large shabti gangs will be found in burial sites, especially during the Third
Intermediate Period. It is in this context that we find the st-mAat shabtis.

st-mAat shabtis in the Museo Egizio di Torino

The Egyptian Museum of Turin owns one of the finest collections of shabtis found at the burial site of Deir el-Medina. Most of these
artefacts were acquired by Italian Egyptologist Ernesto Schiaparelli as finds distribution after his successful digging campaigns at Deir
el-Medina during the early 20th century. The collection is not only remarkable because of the fine specimens found at the site, but
also because they offer us a glimpse into the evolution of shabti figures, from the exquisite mummiform statuettes of the Overseer of
Works Kha (18th dynasty) to the large gang of the Prophet of Amun Nespayherhat (21st-22nd dynasty).

The text on this page was written by Miguel Angel from Spain, the photographs were all taken by Dik van Bommel from The
Netherlands.
Mould for making shabtis
Provenance: Deir el-Medina
Material: Clay
Date: End of New Kingdom -
Third Intermediate Period
Terracotta statues could be
mass produced, using moulds
which allowed rapid production at
low cost.
Shabti of Urny
Name: Urny                                        
Wrny                                                    
Title: Housewife                                
nb.t-pr                      
Mummiform holding hoe and flail; good modelling; polychrome decoration painted on
white gesso: wig painted ochre and blue, face and hands dark ochre; hoe and flail
painted red; large usekh collar painted ochre, and blue. Hieroglyphs painted black.
Material: wood
Text:  Incised hieroglyphs, 9 rows around body. Chapter VI of the Book of the
Dead.
Provenance: Deir el-Medina (?)                                  
Date: 18th dynasty
Dossiers d’Archeologie, p. 28
(Inv. cat. 2599)
Name: Nuneb                                                   
nw-nb
Title: Servant in the Place of Truth                
sDm aS m st-mAat             
Mummiform holding agricultural implements (hoes); good modelling; polychrome
decoration painted on white gesso: Wig painted black, face and hands dark red; hoes
painted red; large usekh collar painted red and black. Hieroglyphs painted black.
Material: wood
Text: Painted hieroglyphs, 7 rows around body. Chapter VI of the Book of the Dead.
Provenance: Deir el-Medina [TT291]                                 
Date: Late 18th dynasty

http://www.ccer.nl/ccer/apps/prosopographia/prosopo.asp?trans=nw-nb
Name: Khaiemter                                          
xaj-m-tr
Title: Servant in the Place of Truth                
sDm aS m st-mAat                
Mummiform, hands crossed; good modelling; polychrome decoration painted on
white gesso: Wig painted black, face painted red ochre; large usekh collar
with decorations in red and black; front panel, boundary lines painted red,
hieroglyphs painted black.
Material: wood
Text:  One column of hieroglyphs on front.          
Dd mdw im Wsir sDm aS m st-mAat xaj-m-tr mAa-xrw         
Words spoken by the Osiris, the Servant it the Place of Truth, Khaiemter,
justified.
Provenance: Deir el-Medina [TT 220]                                  
Date: 19th dynasty

www.ccer.nl/ccer/apps/prosopographia/prosopo.asp?trans=xaj-m-tr
Name: Tamaket                                            
tA-mk.t
Title:   -                               
Mummiform, arms crossed; good modelling; polychrome decoration painted on
white gesso: Wig painted black, face painted red ochre; large usekh collar
painted red and black lines; thin line delimiting usekh collar painted red.
Front panel, boundary lines painted red, hieroglyphs painted black.
Material: wood
Text: One column of hieroglyphs on front.          
Wsir tA-mk.t mAa-xrw rx…         
The Osiris, Tamaket, justified ...
Provenance: Deir el-Medina                                   
Date: 19th dynasty
Dossiers d’Archeologie, p. 26
(Inv. cat. 2588)

www.ccer.nl/ccer/apps/prosopographia/prosopo.asp?trans=tA-mk.t
Name: Dydy
dy-dy
Title: Carpenter
Hmww
Mummiform, arms crossed; good modelling; polychrome
decoration painted on white gesso: Wig painted black, face
painted red ochre; large usekh collar painted red and black
lines; Front panel, boundary lines painted red, hieroglyphs
painted black.
Material: limestone
Text:  One column of hieroglyphs on front.          
Wsir Hmww dy-dy …         
The Osiris, the carpenter, Dydy ...
Provenance: Deir el-Medina                                   
Date: 19th dynasty
Dossiers d’Archeologie, p. 28 (Inv. cat. ?)
Other shabtis of Nespayherhat
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The page was last modified on August 12th 2012